Welcome to the online version Oxford History of Western Music (OHWM) by Richard Taruskin! I am writing this "Guide on the Side" to help steer you through the multiple volumes of this terrific book so that you can find the most valuable and relevant information and leave behind things that are too technical or less relevant to our coursework. Feel free to browse other sections of the book, but please do use this guide to keep yourself on track for the most important sections.

This "guide" will have multiple pages and resources, as well as quizzes and writing assignments embedded within it. Keep an eye out for the assignments and I will try to keep you updated on Moodle.

Now, let's get to the text! What do you say we start on a fresh page? Use the right arrow below to navigate to the next page.

If you look to your right you will see that the OHWM has a certain layout. The main text takes up most of the page, and on the left is a series of chapter headings. You should be able to see the text open to a specific chapter: "Class of 1685 I" (in Vol. 2, Music in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries).

As you can see if you scroll down the table of contents, each chapter has many sub-sections. I am going to use this Guide to help you find the right subsections -- AND, often, areas within sub-sections -- that are the best for our purposes. Now, to begin reading we start with the first sub-section, "Contexts and Canons."

This first sub-section does some good work at establishing a historical context and point of view for the music we are about to study. It addresses questions about why Bach's music is the earliest music, historically, that we are likely to encounter in a concert hall.

However, since we are diving into the middle of a continuous text, you will probably feel a sense of dislocation as Taruskin makes references and uses unfamiliar vocabulary in developing his observations and arguments. My advice is: Don't get too bogged down in the unfamiliar terms at this point. We will address the most important terms in class. If something is really troubling you, make a note of it and ask me -- I will do my best to define it for you.

The next sub-section "Careers and Lifestyles" is fairly straightforward and should present minimal problems for you and you can read that in its entirety.

The following section, "Roots (Domestic)" presents us with a few problems in that Taruskin weaves together good, digestible historical info with highly detailed and highly technical discussions of musical phenomena. Let's try to dig out the best information.

Start at the beginning of this section and read through the end of 7th paragraph which ends "-- sometimes praised for it, sometimes mocked." Then SKIP the next three paragraphs entirely (and ignore the examples of printed music, ex. 6-1A & B).

THIS paragraph is GOOD, however (It begins "Devices like these, ...":

And the text following the musical examples is also good. -- I will address the word "fugue" in class.

STOP reading at "Equally well in tune actually means equally well out-of-tune." You can SKIM some of the remainder of this section if you like, but you are not required to do so. The next thing to read is "Roots (Imported)."

This chapter also presents few problems and should be readable. Again, if the terms become too technical, make a note of anything that seems important and please ask me about it. By the end of this sub-section, you should have a feel for some aspects of the composers Bach and Handel. We will go further with them in subsequent meetings.

Bach and the Suite

One of the most important musical genres during Bach's lifetime was the suite. A suite is simply an instrumental composition (as opposed to a vocal one) comprised of a sequence of dances.

Some suites are introduced by a more elaborate first part, but every other section -- known more formally, as a "movement" -- is some kind of dance. Variety comes about through the characteristic rhythms associated with each dance, as well as through the diversity of tempo, from slow to quick and many gradations in between.

READ the two sections of the text, "Roots (Imported)" and "Bach's Suites." These will provide excellent background material and an overview about the suite. We can SKIP "A Close-Up" and "'Agremens' and 'Doubles.'"

In the section "Stylistic Hybrids," there is an excerpt printed of the music to Bach's Orchestral Suite No. 3, which is one of the assigned listening pieces -- posted on Moodle. Although I do not expect you to be able to read music, especially not an orchestral score, it may be interesting and informative to look at Ex. 6-15A while listening to the beginning of the track on Moodle. (Ex. 6-15B is from later on in the same piece -- but I wonder how many of you can possibly figure out when that music occurs while listening? That would be pretty tough, I bet.) In any case, Taruskin's background on this music is very informative and interesting.

Next, comes a discussion of parts of the Brandenburg Concertos. which we can SKIP for the purposes of the class. However, as many of you inevitably know already, The 6 Brandenburg Concertos are among Bach's most famous and most frequently performed works in the concert hall. If you are interested in this music, you can profit by reading some of what is written in here, certainly. But, for the class, we can SKIP the rest of this chapter. We will move on to explore the life and work of Bach's contemporary, Georg Frideric Handel in the next chapter: Class of 1685 (II).

Georg Frideric Handel

Open the OHWM to the Chapter "Class of 1685 (II)

This chapter is mainly about Handel, an exact contemporary of Bach, who, though he composed music in many of the same forms as Bach (fugue, suite, concerto, etc.), because of his very different career, was prolific in genres that Bach left untouched, such as opera and oratorio.

The first three sections of this chapter are good for our purposes, though they occasionally get a little technical. READ: Handel on the Strand, Lofty Entertainments and Messiah. When the musical analysis gets too detailed, feel free to SKIM, however, I think it's worthwhile to try to get the point of what Taruskin is trying to say. Notice how often words like "entertainment," "theater" and "operatic" occur in the discussions of Handel. Very different from the descriptions of Bach which featured such terms as "sacred" and "religion."

We have certain parts of The Messiah assigned as our required listening. The text makes reference to even further selections from the work. These can easily be found on youtube by searching the title (i.e.: "All we like sheep" by Handel). I hope that you will find in Taruskin's descriptions of these selections parellel concepts to what we encounter in our work with The Messiah.

The section "Borrowings" makes a bit of a fuss about Handel's habit of re-working material he had composed elsewhere -- or even material he took from another composer. All of this belongs to the field of musicology and is way too specialized a concern for the members of this class. Which is a bit of a shame, because within this chapter, Taruskin shares some great insights into the music. If you feel brave, I encourage you to go through it and take what you can -- but I won't require it!

We can SKIP the sections: "Back to Bach," "The Old Style" and "The New Style." We can also SKIP the section "Musical Symbolism, Musical Idealism" can be quite interesting, if anyone is interested in discovering more about Bach's Lutheran beliefs and the close, close connection between Martin Luther and Bach's music.

We can also SKIP "What Music Is For," but I would like you to know that in this chapter, Taruskin goes to great lengths to demonstrate the presence of extreme dissonance (clashes in harmony), disjointed melody and disjunct harmony in Bach's music -- all things that an audience in Bach's day would have found unpleasant. And that is exactly the point. Music, for Bach, was not always a mere pleasure. It was, rather, a means to represent the profoundest truths of existence -- many of which are unpleasant, indeed.

I point this out in the hope that it is an enlightening idea for the members of the class. Music that is not entertainment -- and even the pretty violins we hear in "classical music" are not always there to relax the mind and tickle our fancies. Music can serve a higher purpose. Bach's music is revered by so many because of the profound truths that he contemplated and represented through his compositions.

The last thing to read in this chapter is "Bach's Testaments." This chapter describes some of the major works that I alluded to in class: The Well- Tempered Clavier, "The Art of Fugue" and others. Major works or collections of works that Bach wrote to hand down a standard -- and incredibly high standard -- of composition for future generations. And we, the generations of the future, 250+ years later, are still paying attention.

The section on the "Bach Revival" we can cover later when we get to it and the section on Scarlatti, we can SKIP entirely. Next up for us is a major development in musical style.

A Change in Style

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As was mentioned in class, we now come to a point in our study where we encounter our first major stylistic change. Bach and Handel were contemporaries an wrote in similar genres and used similar techniques. But, music evolves, as all art evolves -- as societal conditions and the personality of the figures who affect them change.

The period during which Bach and Handel wrote has come to be known as the Baroque Era. The earliest Baroque Era music would be from c. 1600 or so and it is the stylistic period that follows the Renaissance. So, by the time Handel and Bach were writing, this style had matured considerably and perhaps music was due for a change.

Among he composers who most effected this change were the sons of JS Bach. Chapter 8, "The Comic Style" deals extensively with the music of Bach's sons -- and it's really quite insightful, well-written and amazingly researched stuff. On the other hand, it's way too much information for this class.

You must READ the first section "You Can't Get There from Here," which introduces some characteristics of the style. The next section "The Younger Bachs" you can SKIP (although it is quite worthwhile reading, mostly about WF Bach, if you are interested). The next one, "Sensibility" you can also SKIP (though, once again, it is very good writing about CPE Bach). And you can SKIP "The London Bach" which is about JC Bach (and, not surprisingly, perhaps, is also very good).

In these sections that we are skipping, I would like to point out that there are numerous occasions where the text echoes what we have learned in class. For example:

"WF’s melodic design, at the opposite pole from JS’s powerfully spinning engine, is based on the dual principle of short-range contrast and balance."

"Rather, his aim was to transcend texts—that is, to achieve a level of pure expressivity that language, bound as it was to semantic specifics, could never reach. This transcendently expressive music of which CPE was the fully self-conscious harbinger was later dubbed “absolute” music. It marked the first time that instrumental music was deemed to have decisively surpassed vocal music in spiritual content, and to be consequently more valuable as art."

"The balanced phrases and short-range contrasts that we have observed in the sonatas of JC’s half brothers have become even more pronounced, to the point where they were regarded as J. C. Bach’s personal signature. 'Bach seems to have been the first composer who observed the law of contrast as a principle.'"

A Change in Style

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Because this text is topical, dealing with musical issues in a quasi-chronological order, rather than biographical, we will pick up in a piecemeal fashion some of the information about the composers we are studying for the next few weeks: Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. So be it. We will eventually read what we must -- I will deal with the composers one-by-one in class.

The next things to READ are in the chapter "Enlightenment and Reform." READ the following sections: "What Was Enlightenment?," "Mozart," "Idomeneo," "Die Entfuhrung...", "The Da Ponte Operas," "Late Works", "Don Giovanni Close Up", "Music As Social Mirror" and "Music and Morality." 

There are moments when the texts overly analytical and you can feel free to SKIM those sections, but overall, most of this is accessible -- and very worthwhile. 

Assignment:

Write a one-page response to the following question: In these several sections about Mozart, what important points does the author communicate to us about Mozart's life and music? Are there aspects of Mozart's work that reflect his times or such a concept as the Enlightenment? Explain.

This should be in you own words, though you should feel free to include a short quote or two from the text (if necessary) and to refer to music that has been assigned or to music that has been played in class. Please hand this in Wednesday September 30th.

Further "Guides" to reading about Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven will be provided soon.

Classical Style Continued: Haydn

We now proceed to Chapter 10 "Instrumental Music Lifts Off." In this chapter, which focuses primarily on Franz Josef Haydn, Taruskin explains how non-operatic, non-religious, non-vocal music gained great communicative power and became enormously popular with the general public -- something that had never really been the case in all previous music history.

The first few sections provide some good background. READ: "Party Music Goes Public," "Concert Life Is Born" and "An Army of Generals." The next section about Bach's sons gets a little technical, so feel free to SKIP.

Then comes the most important material. READ the sections "Haydn," " The Perfect Career," "The Esterhazy Years." The section about "Norms and Deviations" become a little technical, too, so feel free to SKIP or SKIM. It does contain this relevant idea: "It is the existence of norms that allows departures to become meaningful -- and thereby expressive. In that sense, rules are indeed made to be broken." The same goes for "Sign Systems"  -- however, the latter half of this section introduces us to the importance of the string quartet in Haydn's output. We should READ from the paragraph (the 11th paragraph of this section) that begins: "Haydn's maturest instrumental style is often said to date from the 1780's..." to the end of this section.

The next section "Anatomy of a Joke" goes into too much musical detail for us. SKIP.

The rest of the chapter, from "The London Tours" to the end, is very good -- especially the discussion of the "Surprise Symphony" which is one of our assigned pieces of music for listening. READ from "The London Tours" to the end of the chapter and you will have a good overview of Haydn's style and career.

Chapter 11, which describes Mozart's Piano Concerti and his later Symphonies is highly informative and insightful. However, it is beyond the scope of what we can adequately cover in this class. We will SKIP Chapter 11 and proceed to Chapter 12, which is problematic and wherein Taruskin gets argumentative. However, it is also where we are introduced to Ludwig van Beethoven, the last composer we will get to know before the first exam. Therefore, we will forge ahead with Chapter 12 through to the end of this volume, taking the best parts -- and arguing about the rest!

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)

The next thing to READ is Chapter 12 "The First Romantics." We shall read the entire thing, even the parts that have some technically challenging musical analysis. It's all very good, very insightful writing with loads of great historical and biographical information.

As we enter into a discussion of Beethoven, we encounter one of the most important subjects that we will face in the class. His importance in his own right and to subsequent history cannot be overstated. Give yourself time with this material -- it is well worth it!!!

Unfortunately, as we enter into this discussion, we also come to first of several points in the textbook where the author's (Taruskin's) opinions and efforts to re-write the wisdom of much music history interferes with our progress, to a certain degree. I am going to take a moment here to argue with him -- against some of the ideas that he propounds in the text. He has a point, certainly, and I am not at all saying he is "wrong" in any kind of factual matter. I simply believe that his opinions become an unnecessary distraction, especially for students who are encountering the material without a great store of prior knowledge.

The title of this chapter alone is the very beginning of the problem: "The First Romantics." Let me provide some background. Music history has been taught for over one-hundred years with certain acknowledged divisions -- the different eras, which have become so universally accepted that they have labels recognized by musicians, historians and scholars around the world: Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic & Modern.

Now, everyone knows that any kind of "label" is inherently flawed -- it implies a generalization that can, of course, always be argued against. Furthermore, one can argue that one period goes on longer, historically, before another really begins; while, looking at it another way, someone else might point out that the roots of a new era are evident much earlier during the previous era, and argue to let push the label back further in time to include those roots.

I respect these kinds of arguments, and find them interesting -- to a point. However, ultimately arguments like these are the very definition of the word "academic" in its most pejorative meaning. It doesn't matter. My preference is to use these labels so far as they are useful, with an acknowledgement that they are flawed -- then, let's move on and get to the music!

The reason I go into all of this now is, the way I teach music history, there is a unity of style between Mozart, Haydn & Beethoven. It's right there in the notes they write and how they are put together. This unity of style has come to be known as "The Classical Style." This terminology, for all its flaws, is useful, confirming the unity of this group.

It's important because there is a fundamental discontinuity between this group of composers and the group that comes afterward, historically -- in terms of the musical substance of how they write, for whom they write and the way music is consumed by the audience.

Is it 100% discontinuous? No. But, in my opinion (a very strong one, backed by countless books and research), it is significant enough to make a clear distinction. In my opinion, Taruskin seriously, even egregiously overstates the case for moving around the references to the different eras by calling this group of composers "Romantic."

Thus, in effect, I am saying: on this issue, take the text with a grain of salt.

The next thing to READ is in Chapter 13, "C-Minor Moods". Most of this chapter is too technical, but some of it is very useful. Read the sections "Devotion and Derision," SKIP to the section "Morti di Eroi" -- the paragraph that begins "This is horror music." (the 7th paragraph). This and the next section "Germination and Growth" deal with Beethoven's Fifth Symphony -- which is our assigned piece. Finally READ "The Music Century" for some perspective on what is to follow.

This is the final reading selection before the first midterm exam.

Music in the Nineteenth Century

We now can begin a new volume of the OHWM dealing with the Nineteenth Century. As I mentioned in class, we will encounter far more musical personalities and a wider range of music. This will make it in some ways more fun, but perhaps more challenging, too.

Taruskin deals extensively with Rossini and Schubert in the first two chapters. There is a wealth of material here. Once again, we can choose what is most relevant for our purposes.

In Chapter 1:

-- READ Deeds of Music, The Dialectical Antithesis and The Code Rossini in their entirety

--READ Imbroglio (about comic opera) only up through (including) the paragraph that begins "Don Basilio's aria..." And Heart Throbs (about serious opera) only up through the paragraph that ends "What better to recommend it to our attention?"

-- READ Bel Canto up through the paragraph that begins "Inevitably, Rossini had named Bellini's greatest and most famous aria." 

At this point (even though there is an informative discussion f Donizetti at the end of the chapter), we can skip ahead.

Chapter 2 The Music Trance deals mostly with Schubert, although it does make an effort to trace backward to the examples that preceded Schubert. I confess that these precedents are NOT important for our purposes. Suffice it to say that for many of the types of composition Schubert produced, he was not alone in creating these genres. However, he WAS unique in that he focused so much of his creative energy on genres that were not whole-heartedly embraced by composers of the first rank.

-- READ The I and the We, Private Music, Altered Consciosness, Salon Culture, Schubert: A Life in Art, & Privatizing the Public Sphere.

{At this point, I have to register one more disagreement I have with Taruskin. At the start of "Altered Consciousness" he invokes Goethe's Faust and, in particular, Faust's statement that when he asks for a moment to linger over will be his moment of damnation. To me, this is a gross and convenient misrepresentation of what Faust asks for in the context of the story. Yes, indeed, it is the moment that Faust sets up as his moment of damnation -- but it is not the cause of his damnation (which is what, I think Taruskin implies here). Faust has become bored with life. He believes he has seen it all and learned it all and, although he desires a moment he will feel wonder and joy, he doubts that it can be provided. In fact, he feels so certain that he is completely beyond such moments, so he tells Mephostopheles that if the demon can make him feel that kind of enthusiasm, then he will have earned the right to Faust's soul. But, Faust believes that it can never be done -- he is damned for his hubris in daring the Devil. And for other things as well...We will go into this further in class.}

We can SKIP ahead at this point. If you adore Schubert, you may certainly read through these sections and profit from it, in particular, the section B-Minor Moods and the one following, which deal with Schubert's glorious "Unfinished" Symphony (though, Taruskin is too heavy-handed in drawing the comparisons with Rossini for my taste, among other things).

Chapter 3 also deals with Schubert (and a number of others, too). 

--READ The Lied Is Born, The Discovery of the Folk, Kultur, Lyrics and Narratives.

-- SKIP The Lied Grows Up & Schubert and Romantic Irony

-- READ Representations of Consciousness. This is in many ways the most useful section in this volume so far. It deals with the two songs that we will examine for Schubert -- two of his best known works and two that represent so much about the new directions that this century will explore. It is highly recommended that you come to terms with what is new about Schubert from the previous sections and try to build an understanding of the meaning and social context in which these works spoke to their audience.

Paganini, Liszt and Chopin

Chapter 5 Virtuosos

This chapter deals extensively with the phenomenon of the touring virtuoso, a performer and composer. READ Stimulus all the way through. Response is also quite engaging up until the paragraph that ends "...stimulated and realized in the French capital in the heady atmosphere of the July Monarchy." Then skip 11 paragraphs (!) and READ the final 5 paragraphs of the section, from "After emerging from his chrysalis..." to the end. The rest of the chapter may be SKIPPED.

Chopin was a friend of Liszt's and a fellow pianist. He also attended Paganini's concerts in Paris and wrote tributes to the great Italian violinist. Thus he belongs with this group, but in the text he is found elsewhere -- in Chapter 7 Self and Other.

READ Genius and Stranger, National or Universal, Or Exotic?, & The Pinnacle of Salon Music. After this point, there are plenty of good nuggets for us, but the whole is a bit too detailed. There are indented quotes in the middle of  The Chopinesque Miniature that are well worth reading to get a sense of what this music meant to contemporaries. Most of this may be SKIPPED, but READ Nationalism as Message, for sure.

 

Berlioz

In Chapter 6 Critics, Taruskin deals with 2 composers. Let's take the 2nd one first, Hector Berlioz, whose Symphonie Fantastique we will hear in class.

READ Instrumental Drama, The Limits of Music & Varieties of Representation.

German Romanticism: Mendelssohn and Schumann

We now have reached a point where national identity begins to play a much larger role in the lives of the musicians we encounter. Already with Berlioz, the idea of French nationalism is beginning to surface. For the next few composers we meet, indeed almost from now until the end of the course, the idea of national, or at least ethnic identity becomes an important lens through which we will look at their work -- because it is the lens they used when creating it.

We turn back in the book to Chapter 3 to READ the section Kultur, which  deals with the question of German nationhood and what role music could play in it.

Then READ The Oratorio Reborn (you only need to READ the first 3 paragraphs). Here Taruskin mentions, but does not go into much detail about the revival of the music of J.S. Bach. Remember from our earlier lectures that the music of J.S. Bach was already out of fashion before the time of his death. after that time, major public performances of his work did not exist, and this was the case for almost 100 years. Then, in 1829, his music was "re-discovered" by Felix Mendelssohn, who staged a performance of one of Bach's most impressive and large-scale works, the St. Matthew Passion ( a special kind of oratorio, leaning more toward the sacred than the entertaining oratorios of Handel). Mendelssohn, at the age of twenty, recruited the musicians, including and orchestra, several choruses and solo singers, rehearsed them, alerted the public and lead the performance -- which has gone down in history as one of the seminal moments in all of music. It is not overstating the case to say that, because of that event, Bach's music has become a standard part of the repertoire. In a sense, we have Mendelssohn to thank for bringing back to the attention of the world the music by the figure who many see as the greatest composer who ever lived.

Then, READ Mendelssohn & Civic Nationalism, which is full of important and interesting nuggets of information. Finally READ Two Prodigies, which is about Mendelssohn and his sister, Fanny. The are brief but insightful comments about the Overture to a Midsummer Night's Dream.

Now, we turn to Robert Schumann, who like Mendelssohn, was an important to German Romanticism. He was more of an innovator than Mendelssohn, but with less ease and polish and assurance. Turn to Chapter 6 which puts Schumann's literary endeavors first, as is fitting since they played a central role not only in Schumann's own life, but also in the lives of those musicians he wrote about. The opening section deals a bit with the history of music criticism in order to introduce Schumann himself in the final 2 paragraphs. Then proceed to READ What Is A Philistine? (all of it). Also READ Literary Music, which deals with Dichterliebe -- at least read up through the part that deals with Im wunderschoenen Monat Mai (through the paragraph that begins "Like Schubert before him…").

Giants of Opera: Wagner and Verdi

If we had more time, we could explore some of the very interesting issues that are introduced in Chapter 8, Midcentury, but alas, we don't really have the time, if we are to adequately cover certain other important personalities, trends and works.

We now come to two of the grandest figures the mind could possibly imagine -- and with these enormous and complex figures come additional problems. We will spend this entire week in lecture on Richard Wagner because his work is of such monumental importance, for music and, indeed for all of art and history. But, in my opinion, Taruskin's writing on Wagner (all of Chapter 10) gets extremely bogged down in side-issues and does not focus well on communicating to a reader (especially a first-time-reader) the essence of his greatness, nor does it provide an adequate key to unlocking understanding from these incredibly important works. So, instead of trying to piece together the useful bits from Taruskin, I am going to scan for you the writing of another author entirely. You can READ in Chapter 10 only the first two sections, The Problem and Art and Revolution. For the rest, I will post on Moodle resources that are better for our purposes.

On the other hand, the writing on Giuseppe Verdi is quite good and informative. In Chapter 11 READ the remarkable opening quote play Spooked, The Galley Years, The Popular Style, Tragicomedy and Opera As Modern Drama.

These will be our final readings in this volume. After our next mid-term exam, we will turn to the next volume for our final unit in the course.

French Impressionism: Debussy and Ravel

We move on to Volume 4 of the OHWM, which opens with a useful, if imperfect, description of the environment and motivations for what we call "Modernism."

For starters, I am not a fan of the opening quote from Ezra Pound. While it contains a grain for truth, for sure, I generally do not like to see a book (that is 800 pages long, by the way) start off with what amounts to a put-down of the very topic it is about to address in exhaustive detail. The are many exciting, daring, hilarious, terrifying, moving, overpowering experiences that came about through the modern movement, many of which we are still coming to terms with. It is much richer, more meaningful, more insightful, more of an exploration after some kind of truth than any mere "drug." I encourage you to lay that quote aside, for now.

READ The first section "Modernism" up through the eighth paragraph, the one that ends"…the emancipated, assimilated, urbanized Jew."

We will come back to this chapter later. But for now, we SKIP ahead to Chapter 2. READ the first 3 paragraphs of "Denaturing Desire." Then SKIP to "Half Steplessness" and READ several paragraphs and until the paragraph that ends "Beauty, in short, has made a comeback." (after this, it becomes to technical, unfortunately). Then READ "Impressionism" all the way through -- just SKIM the parts that become too involved in analysis of printed music. There are good nuggets of info right in there next to the analysis, so try to root them out.

SKIP "Melodie" (about Gabriel Faure, who is a wonderful composer, but not one we will study) and "Essentially and Intolerably French."

READ "The Exoticized Self", which is about Ravel (again, SKIM the technical stuff). And SKIP the rest of the chapter.

Composer/Conductors: Mahler and Strauss

Now, we go back to Chapter 1 and pick up at the section "Maximalism." (READ from there to the end of the chapter) This chapter deals with Mahler and his Symphonies and Strauss and his symphonic poems (also: tone poems) and operas. Once again, very good observations are embedded right along analysis, so take what you can and SKIM the rest.

Please take some time to look at some of the musical examples, even if you don't read music. Do you see how line upon line of music is stacked up like a sky-scraper or wedding cake? Visually, the excerpts from the scores of Mahler's 10th and Strauss's Salome illustrate the point about "maximalism" -- which goes beyond "monumental." Remember, in music, what is stacked vertically in a score happens simultaneously in performance. When we listen, all of those stacked lines of music are all happening at once, creating an incredibly dense and complex musical texture (while demonstrating the awe-inspiring mastery of the composers who conceived of them).

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End of Tutorial